It’s my pleasure to announce that Qubes OS Project has got funding from the Open Technology Fund, and this way joined a number of other high-profile, open-source projects, such as the Tor Project, or Open Whisper Systems, who also have received substantial funding from the OTF lately.
OTF does not provide generic funding to projects, but rather sponsors development of a set of specific features. In our case, OTF agreed to support the efforts of porting Whonix (which is a compartmentalization-aware alternative to Tails) to Qubes OS, as well as some more generic work needed to make Qubes OS more usable, both in the context of hardware compatibility and better UX.
Lots of this work has started many months ago, in fact, as many of you might have noticed. Majority of the Whonix and Qubes integration has then been performed by Jason Mehring, a well known Qubes community contributor. This work, of course, would not be possible, if not for Patrick Schleizer, who founded and has been maintaining Whonix, in the first place. We thus decided to split the funding among Jason, Patrick and the ITL (to account for the open source work done by Marek Marczykowski-Górecki and Wojtek Porczyk on core Qubes components).
The funding we got is pretty modest to be frank: it’s $160,000 USD with the intention to cover a year of development by, essentially, 3-4 skilled developers working full time, and some even more than full time ;) Even by open source standards this is very symbolic, as other projects, such as e.g. the Tor Project, pay not not much less than this amount to each of their core developers. And this is understandable – after all nobody wants crappy-paid developers to work on software onto which people sometimes virtually entrust their lives. But that’s just the first step, and it’s still important because it shows how Qubes is going more mainstream now :)
This funding is to cover the development efforts carried between October 2014 and September 2015 (we have submitted our original proposal back in September 2014). Of course, a large part of this time period has already passed and the development efforts during that time have been either (1) graciously donated by the above mentioned developers, (2) partly funded by ITL, and/or (3) funded by other means (i.e. donations to Whonix project). Now the above mentioned $160k amount will be partly paied directly to the developers mentioned above as a (partial) compensation for their work, and partly to ITL as a reimbursement of the costs it carried while supporting this work over the past months.
Critics might say that these are the US Government money we’re taking, and this might negatively impact credibility of the project… Well, it surely is true these are the US Government money indeed. The OTF makes this perfectly clear on their own website. Shall we then really worry about it? Shall our users worry?
I don’t think so, and here is why:
Being funded by US Government does not necessarily imply maliciousness. Occasionally the USG funds something meaningful, such as e.g. NASA or DARPA.
Almost always there is somebody (often powerful and of doubtful ethics) behind any larger money… Somehow most people are not concerned about how ITL managed to keep Qubes development over the last 5 years… Whose money have these been, really? And those who think donations or some form of crowdfunding could sustain a project like Qubes are advised to look into the total amount of Bitcoins we have accumulated from donations over the course of nearly 2 years (yes, that’s around $800, for which we could probably afford to pay for… 1-2 days of work a skilled system developer ;)
Last but not least: we have been trying to keep Qubes development process as transparent and infrastructure-independent as technically possible with the goal of reducing the amount of trust our users needs to put into… us. This includes, e.g. introduction of our qubes-secpack repo with canaries, the build process improvements I wrote more about in the previous post, and also recently discussed on the mailing list.
In other words: the mere introduction of US government-originating money does not change much in terms of how trusted the Qubes OS project should be, in my opinion. Admittedly, the binary distribution process currently remains the weakest link here (because it’s possible our signing keys could be stolen somehow, or that one of us could be bribed or tortured or blackmailed to give them away) and this is the case regardless of whether we signed a contract with the OTF or not. Currently the only way to eliminate this weakness is to build everything from sources, which actually is quite nicely supported by our automatic Qubes builder system.
In the future, when deterministic builds become reality, the multi-signature scheme on binaries would become possible, reducing the problem of single-point-of-failure with regards of binaries build and distribution process.
Those who still felt uncomfortable about Qubes getting this kind of funding from the USG are always welcomed to help us on getting other sources. There is, of course, nothing that could prevent us from receiving funding from other organizations at the same time.
Finally, I would like to end this post by giving a big Thank You to a person who is directly responsible for making this OTF funding contract a reality: Michael Carbone. Michael approached me with the idea of submitting a proposal to OTF for Qubes and Whonix integration back in mid-2014 and offered help with preparation of the submission and managing of the overall process. Michael’s dayjob is at Access, where he helps civil society and human rights organizations around the world defend themselves against cyber threats. Naturally this makes Qubes, especially Qubes with Whonix, an attractive tool for him and his partners. For the conspiracy theorists: yes, Michael used to work for the US Department of State as he clearly notes in his biographical note linked above. He also studied in China ;)
You can also read the annoucement by the Whonix Project here.